One of the few measures in protecting people potentially applicable to all countries of Europe, with possible strong effects on the handling of patient rights nationally, institutionally and across borders comes from the ‘Council of Europe’. All EU Member States are members of the Council of Europe. Although the European Union maintains close relations with the Council of Europe, the question whether it can accede to its conventions remains a delicate matter. In 1996 the ECJ stated that the EC Treaty does not allow the EU to accede to the Council of Europe’s European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom.
For patient rights the most relevant instrument is the European Convention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and biomedicine.
You can find the text of the Convention here.